Why do joint pains occur in the fingers and how are they treated?

causes of pain in finger joints

Pain in the finger joints can occur for several reasons. Any pathological condition requires competent treatment.

Joint diseases require an integrated approach. It includes the use of medication, diet, physical therapy, special gymnastics and alternative medicine.

Possible causes of pain in the finger joints

Joint pain can occur at any age. There are many possible reasons for this phenomenon.


Pain in the finger joints in 40% of cases is caused by this cause. This pathology is often called polyarthrosis or knuckled fingers. It belongs to dystrophic diseases and is characterized by slow progression, which is why patients often ignore the first stage of the disease.

The disease most often affects people over 50 and rarely occurs in people under 40.

The causes of poliosteoarthritis are often called heredity, but there are other factors that cause them:

  • climax;
  • material exchange violation;
  • pathology of the thyroid and other endocrine glands;
  • diabetes mellitus.

The joints contain cartilage that starts to break down. This means that natural lubrication is compromised, causing dryness and cracking.

Due to the lack of lubrication and dryness, the articular cartilages rub against each other, which causes an inflammatory process. In this context, an abnormal inflammatory fluid in the joints is produced, expanding the joints from the inside. As a result, deformation occurs, accompanied by painful sensations.

Poliosteoarthritis is accompanied by other symptoms. They are represented mainly by Bouchard and Heberden nodules:

  • Bouchard's nodulesare characterized by slow development without complications. They usually form on the lateral surfaces of the joints, giving them a fusiform shape.
  • Heberden's nodulesaffect the distal interphalangeal joints in their dorsal and lateral parts. They are characterized by symmetrical development in both hands. The formation of nodules is often accompanied by swelling and redness of the skin around the joints. Painful and burning sensations appear, although in 30% of cases the pathology is asymptomatic.

As poliosteoarthritis progresses, joint stiffness increases. The consequence of the pathology is the knuckle.

Rheumatoid arthritis and Still's disease

because there is pain in the joints of the fingers

This disease belongs to systemic connective tissue pathologies and has a complex autoimmune pathogenesis. The pathology rarely manifests itself in patients under 30 years of age. In men, it occurs 5 times less.

The signs of rheumatoid arthritis depend on its stage:

  1. The initial stage of the disease is characterized by periarticular edema of the bursa. This causes pain, swelling of the periarticular region and local temperature rise.
  2. In the second stage, the cells begin to divide rapidly, which causes the synovium to become more dense.
  3. In the third stage, inflamed cells produce an enzyme that affects cartilage and bones, so that the affected joints are often deformed. This phase is accompanied by an increase in pain and loss of motor functions.

There are three groups of possible causes for rheumatoid arthritis:

  • Heredity.
  • Infections. Pathological changes can be caused by some paramyxoviruses, herpes viruses, hepatoviruses, retroviruses.
  • Triggering factors. Pathological changes can be triggered by hypothermia, intoxication, stress, use of certain medications, hyperinsolation, endocrinopathy.

Still's disease is a form of rheumatoid arthritis. It is usually accompanied by fever, rash and itching. This disease is diagnosed more frequently in children. In addition to the joints, Still's disease can affect the lymph nodes, cause pleurisy, pericarditis.

Psoriatic arthritis

This pathology is one of the forms of arthritis and can occur after 20 years. It develops in the context of psoriasis, but in some cases precedes it.

In addition to painful sensations, the pathology is accompanied by the following signs:

  • swelling of the joints;
  • Acquisition through the skin in the bluish purple periarticular area;
  • the appearance of bumps and depressions in the nails;
  • slight stiffness.

There is a destructive form of pathology, characterized by rapid bone erosion. It is fraught with loss of joint mobility.

The inflammatory process can affect not only the joints, but also some organs. The skin plaques characteristic of psoriasis in this form of arthritis are often accompanied by the appearance of acne.

The possible causes of psoriatic arthritis are as follows:

  • alcohol abuse;
  • smoking;
  • stress;
  • damage to the skin;
  • side effects of some medications;
  • change in hormone levels;
  • excess ultraviolet radiation.

Infectious arthritis

This type of arthritis is also called septic and is characterized by an inflammatory process caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites.

There are many possible pathological symptoms - the clinical picture depends on the causative agent of the infection.

The main signs of the disease are:

  • pain;
  • mobility limitation;
  • hyperemia of the affected area;
  • edema.

As the cause of the pathology is infection, it can be accompanied by fever, chills and intoxication syndrome.

Infectious arthritis can develop in the context of another disease - rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, obesity. The reason may be alcohol and drugs, sexually transmitted infections.


This condition is also called gouty arthritis. It is a metabolic disease. In that case, uric acid or sodium monourate is deposited in the body's tissues. Among women, gout is much less common.

The pathology is characterized by a paroxysmal character. Exacerbation episodes can last from 3 days to a week and a half. Attacks are characterized by an acute appearance and the same rapid cessation. The presence of seizures means an inflammatory process.

The exacerbation of the disease usually begins at night and may be accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • the pain worsens with movement;
  • the skin over the inflamed joint turns red;
  • the body temperature increases;
  • tofus are formed around inflamed joints - whitish patches under the skin;
  • lesions are usually unilateral.

In addition to the acute period, there are latent and chronic stages of the pathology. In the first case, the course of the disease is asymptomatic and its only sign is hyperuricemia (blood count indicator). The chronic stage is characterized by long periods of remission.


how to get rid of finger joint pain

This condition is a form of arthrosis in which only the thumb is affected. In most cases, rhizarthrosis is a manifestation of poliosteoarthritis, but in every 4-5 patients it is an independent disease.

In almost every two people, this pathology is caused by trauma. It can be domestic or sporting.

There are other causes of pathology:

  • incomplete rehabilitation for a fractured wrist bone;
  • small permanent wounds to the joint capsule;
  • heredity;
  • joint dysplasia;
  • disturbances
  • in the endocrine system;
  • metabolic disorder
  • ;
  • the effects of certain drugs that cause changes in cartilage tissue.

There are 3 stages of the pathology:

  1. At first, the person feels only discomfort.
  2. Then, bone growth appears and the painful sensations intensify due to the exposure of nerve endings.
  3. In the last stage, the thumb is severely deformed and its mobility can be completely lost.

Pain is the main symptom of the disease. Intensifies with movement, drop in atmospheric pressure, under cold or hot water. In the beginning, the pain is painful and, in the last stage of the pathology, it becomes simply intolerable.

De Quervain's disease (tenosynovitis)

In this case, only the ligaments of the thumb become inflamed. This pathology is caused by constant and monotonous movements of the hands, which cause minor damage to the tendon that passes along the back of the wrist. Trauma can be another cause of the disease.

The disease usually accompanies people in certain professions:

  • musicians;
  • seamstresses;
  • painters;
  • athletes (tennis players, skiers);
  • bricklayers;
  • typists.

This pathology can develop at any age. Painful sensations with it can occur spontaneously, but more often they are caused by the load on the thumb - pressing, extending, trying to grab an object.

Stenosing ligamentitis

This condition is also called Knott's disease or index finger disease. The cause is inflammation of the tendon and the formation of ganglia.

In this case, the affected finger bends and returns to its original position in a problematic way.

Painful sensations occur when the finger is flexed and extended. In addition to pain, other symptoms are characteristic of the disease:

  • dormancy;
  • increased sensitivity;
  • swelling of the joints;
  • lump formation (knot).

Stenosing ligamentitis can be triggered by rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, high stress in the joints.

Risk factors

In the case of each pathology, there are several possible reasons for its development. There are also several risk factors that make finger joints more likely to develop:

  • hereditary predisposition;
  • chronic infection
  • ;
  • diseases of the immune system;
  • material exchange pathology;
  • altered hormonal background;
  • trauma and microtrauma;
  • long-term negative impact.


When painful sensations in the finger joints first appear, they usually seek out a therapist who prescribes the initial exams and directs them to a more restricted specialist - a surgeon, neurologist, traumatologist, arthrologist, rheumatologist, orthopedist, reflexologist, osteopath, endocrinologist, nutritionist, physiatrist.

In any case, the diagnosis begins with a visual inspection. After that, the specialist prescribes standard laboratory tests for blood and urine. They allow to identify the inflammatory process in the body and to evaluate some important indicators (albumin, globulin fractions, the amount of iron).

Joint puncture belongs to laboratory methods. A needle is inserted into your cavity to collect synovial fluid. This test is also called arthrocentesis.

diagnosis of diseases for pain in the finger joints

Of the instrumental diagnostic methods, the following studies can be performed, depending on the circumstances:

  • .This method makes it possible to identify traumas, fractures, tumors and other damage to bone tissue.
  • Ultrasound scanning.This technique is used to examine soft tissue. In addition, using an ultrasound exam, it is possible to check the condition of the vessels.
  • Tomography- computer, magnetic resonance image. CT is preferable for examining bone structures - the exam is similar to an X-ray, but much more informative. Magnetic resonance imaging is more effective in studying soft tissues
  • Scintigraphy.This search is performed using a radio indicator.
  • Electrocardiogram.This diagnosis allows you to check whether the condition has affected the heart.

Treatment of pain in the fingers, joints of the hands

Any disease requires certain measures. The basis of treatment, in most cases, is drug therapy in combination with physical therapy and special gymnastics. Some diseases require a special diet. Popular recipes can also be effective in treating joint pathologies.

Medical therapy

Various drugs are the basis of treatment for most illnesses.

The following drugs are used for joint damage:

  • Preparations of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory group.These funds are used for various inflammatory processes. They not only relieve inflammation, but also reduce pain and fever. These drugs are produced in different dosage forms - for topical use, oral administration, injection.
  • Antibiotics.These drugs are used in the inflammatory process, as well as in the infectious origin of the pathology. For the indication of antibiotic therapy, the causative agent of the disease is first identified to determine its sensitivity to the medication.
  • Glucocorticosteroids.These drugs are steroids and anti-inflammatory drugs. Its action speeds up the recovery process. They are also available in various dosage forms.
  • Chondroprotectors.These drugs are used as part of a comprehensive treatment. They speed up the recovery process, prevent the recurrence of pathology.
  • Painkillerscan be used for severe pain that cannot be tolerated. They can be local remedies in the form of a cream or gel, or medications for oral administration or injections.
  • Immunosuppressants.These drugs are used when the pathology is of an autoimmune nature.

Medication should only be prescribed by a doctor. Each patient needs an individual approach, so even with the same illnesses in different people, the set of drugs needed can be radically different.

Traditional medicine

Alternative medicine is used to treat various diseases, including those that affect the joints.

The following popular recipes can be effective:

  • Melt the propolis and mix with vegetable oil - sunflower or corn oil is best. The resulting composition should be used as an ointment, rubbing it on the affected areas.
  • Rubbing with honey and horseradish. The products must be mixed in equal proportions.
  • Dissolve a spoonful of mustard powder in half a glass of vodka and massage the affected areas with this composition.
  • Boil the potatoes in their skins, mash and apply hot compresses to the inflamed areas.
  • Grind the onion until it becomes pasty and apply a compress to the affected areas. You need to keep it for half an hour, repeating the procedure up to three times a day.
  • Tincture of lilac flowers helps a lot. You need to fill 3 tablespoons. me. raw with a glass of vodka and leave for a week in the dark. Rub the affected areas with a filtered mixture daily for at least half a month.
  • Boil the rolled oats so that they get the consistency of gelatin, let it cool a little, soak a dressing and apply to the affected areas, fixing with polyethylene. Remove the compress after one hour.
  • In case of inflammation, dissolve 1 teaspoon. baking soda in milk and drink.
  • If the inflammatory process is aggravated, you can apply a fresh cabbage leaf smeared with honey to the affected area.
  • Legs with affected joints can be kept in a bath with the addition of birch broth.
  • Heat the salt or buckwheat in a frying pan, place in a cloth bag and fix in the affected area, leaving for several hours.
  • It is useful to use bay leaf infusion inside. To do this, pour a glass of boiling water over some leaves and insist.
  • Black radish juice with honey is useful. Three times a day, you need to take a spoon of this medicine.
  • juice is useful for joint pathologies. A glass of cranberry juice or lingonberry, birch juice is sufficient a day.

Traditional medicine alone is appropriate in the early stage of development of the pathology. In other cases, it must be used in combination with traditional methods. Self-medication may not bring any results, and the pathology will only get worse in this period.


Physiotherapy is one of the components of a comprehensive approach to joint pathologies. It is performed only as directed by a doctor. There are many methods of physical therapy, so the appropriate option is selected individually.

methods of treating pain in finger joints

For various pathologies of the finger joints, the following procedures are appropriate:

  • magnetotherapy - constant, impulse;
  • electrophoresis
  • ;
  • UHF;
  • laser therapy;
  • phonophoresis
  • ;
  • ozokerite therapy;
  • cryotherapy;
  • galvanized
  • ;
  • diadynamic therapy;
  • oxygen therapy; balneotherapy;
  • shockwave therapy;
  • ozone therapy.

Various therapeutic methods are designed to restore joint mobility, restore blood circulation, muscle tone, improve the metabolic process and accelerate recovery.

Any method of physiotherapy has certain contraindications, so it is worth using them only under medical prescription.

Gymnastics with fingers

Special finger exercises are part of a comprehensive treatment approach. This gymnastics allows to restore blood circulation and mobility, reduce pain and has an overall strengthening effect.

Before gymnastics, you can warm your hands if there is no contraindication. Just dip your hands in warm water for 5 minutes or apply a thermal compress.

The following exercises are effective for several joint pathologies:

  • The fists close and open. You need to gently squeeze your hand so that your thumb is on top of the rest. In this position, you need to stay for 0, 5-1 minutes and then open your fist, opening your fingers as wide as possible. You need to do at least 4 reps for each hand.
  • Finger heating. You need to place your palm on a hard surface and press it firmly. Alternately, lift each finger, doing 10 repetitions for each hand.
  • Contact. You need to turn the hand with the palm towards you and alternately connect the tips of each finger with the tip of the thumb, forming a circle. Each contact must be held for 0, 5-1 minutes. For each hand, do 4 or more repetitions.
  • Thumb exercise. The palm of the hand must be on a firm surface. You need to move your thumb along it, as far as possible from the rest. At the extreme point, you need to delay for 0, 5-1 minutes and then return to the starting position. Do 10-15 reps for each hand. Do the exercise every 2-3 days.
  • There is another thumb exercise. You need to turn your hand with the palm towards you, move your thumb to the side as much as possible, and then bend it so that the tip touches the base of the little finger. At this point, you need to take 0, 5 to 1 minute. Do 4 or more repetitions per hand.
  • Stretching the brush. You need to place your palm on the table and straighten the brush so that it is as flat as possible. In this position, you need to stay for 0, 5-1 minutes. Do 4 reps for each hand.
  • Finger stretching. You need to turn your hand with your palm towards you and bend your fingers so that they touch the skin at their bases. In this position, you need to stay for 0, 5-1 minutes and then gently straighten your fingers. Do 4 or more repetitions per hand.
  • Stretching of the thumb. You need to turn your hand with your palm towards you and bend your thumb so that the tip touches the base of your index finger. In this position, you need to stay for 0, 5-1 minutes, do 4 repetitions.
  • There is another option to extend your thumb. The starting position is the same. The thumb should be pulled to the base of the little finger, moving only the lower joint. At the extreme point, take 0, 5-1 minutes, do 4 reps for each hand.
  • Strengthening exercise. It is necessary to take a soft ball and squeeze it as much as possible, lingering at the extreme point for a few seconds. Do 10-15 reps for each hand. The exercise itself should not be done every day, but every 2-3 days, giving your hands rest.
  • Press. This exercise also requires a soft ball. It should be clamped so that there is a thumb on one side and all the others on the other. In this position, you need to stay for 0, 5-1 minutes. You need to do 10-15 reps for each hand. Exercise every 2-3 days.

In addition to these exercises, it is also useful to work with clay or plasticine. The material can be simply rolled and kneaded or made into various crafts.

Fingers should not be used when the pain is very severe. In that case, exercise can only do harm.


One of the principles of treatment for various joint pathologies is adequate nutrition.

The diet should be organized according to the following principles:

  • Normalization of weight. This is necessary for deviations in any direction. In case of disorders of fat metabolism, lipids are deposited in the joints.
  • Restriction of salt. If there is too much in the body, the joints lose elasticity.
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • For gout, the emphasis should be on plant foods to alkalize the body.
  • Reduce your animal protein intake. The amino acids it contains penetrate the synovium, causing inflammation and pain.
  • It is better to refuse meat broths or to use secondary broths.
  • It is better to use meat not in pure form, but as chops, meatballs, meatballs.
  • With the drop, you need to give up fatty fish, caviar, cod liver, offal, eggs, cream butter, fat cream, nuts.
  • You must refuse sweets, confectionery, cereals after pre-treatment, instant products.
  • The diet needs to be saturated with vitamin C. For that, you need citrus fruits, blueberries, apples, peppers, currants, Brussels sprouts, broccoli.


Any disease is easier to prevent than to cure. As a prophylaxis for various finger joint injuries, the following measures are appropriate:

  • Adequate nutrition. The diet should be rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, complex carbohydrates, foods with lean proteins and unsaturated fatty acids.
  • Adequate intake of vitamins and minerals. If there are not enough of them in the diet, you should use funds from the pharmacy.
  • Correct drinking regime. Lack of fluid slows down metabolism, which impairs blood circulation and joint nutrition, and reduces the volume of synovial fluid in them. The drinking regime should be based on clean, still water. On average, you need to drink 2 liters of liquid a day.
  • No bad habits.
  • Adequate physical activity. It is important for the normal speed of the body's metabolic processes, good blood circulation, strengthening of the periarticular muscles and ligaments.
  • Special gymnastics for fingers. It is especially important when the fingers are subjected to constant stress. This is true for some athletes and professions.
  • Competent alternation of activity and rest. The night's sleep must be complete.
  • Minimal stress.
  • Regular medical examinations. They can detect the initial stage of the pathology or prerequisites for its development, which allows you to take the necessary measures in a timely manner.

Pain in the finger joints cannot be ignored. Even in the absence of associated symptoms, this phenomenon can be the first sign of severe pathology. An integrated approach is used to treat joint diseases. Therapeutic methods must be prescribed by the doctor, as each patient needs an individual approach.